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Absolute alcohol - ethyl alcohol that contains no more than one percent by weight of water -- also called dehydrated alcohol.
Acute alcohol problem - Problem resulting from the ingestion of a certain acute dose of alcohol and perhaps in a particular context or circumstance, but not from chronic ingestion.
Addiction- dependence on a substance (such as alcohol or other drugs) or an activity, to the point that stopping is very difficult and causes severe physical and mental reactions.
Aggregate consumption level - Specifically, the level of alcohol consumption within the population, expressed in terms of overall consumption and per capita consumption.
Alcohol - the intoxicating agent in fermented and distilled liquors; drink (as whiskey or beer) containing ethanol.
Alcoholics Anonymous - a worldwide organization devoted to the treatment of alcoholism through self-help groups and adherence to its principles.
Alcoholic - one affected with alcoholism.
Alcoholism - continued excessive or compulsive use of alcoholic drinks; a chronic, progressive, potentially fatal, psychological and nutritional disorder associated with excessive and usually compulsive drinking of ethanol and characterized by frequent intoxication leading to dependence on or addiction to the substance, impairment of the ability to work and socialize, destructive behaviors (as drunken driving), tissue damage (as cirrhosis of the liver), and severe withdrawal symptoms upon detoxification.
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy- heart damage and failure caused by intake of too much alcohol.
Alcoholic cirrhosis - a disease involving scarring and deterioration of liver cells as a result of chronic alcohol abuse.
Alcohol control policy - A set of regulations and other measures restricting or otherwise controlling the production and sale of alcoholic beverages, often administered by specific government agencies.
Alcoholic dementia - a condition in which chronic alcohol abuse produces cognitive deficits such as difficulties in problem solving and memory.
Alcohol dependence - A need for repeated doses of alcohol to feel good or to avoid feeling bad.
Alcohol hepatitis- A disease involving inflammation of the liver as a result of chronic alcohol abuse.
Alcohol-related harm - Any of the range of adverse effects of drinking alcohol experienced by the drinker or by other people.
Alcohol tolerance (metabolic tolerance) - need to consume larger amounts in order to feel effects, which causes the liver to become less efficient.
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome - Happens within 24-96 hours from last drink. More common general reactions to the cessation of alcohol consumption in an alcoholic. It is characterized by physiological discomfort, seizures, and sleep disturbances.
Barley malt - barley after it has been soaked in water, sprouts have grown, sprouts have been removed, and the mixture has been dried and crushed to a powder.
Beer - malt & sprouted grain, combined with water, hops, and yeast.
Binge drinking - when a woman has 4+ drinks or a man has 5+ drinks at a sitting within a 2 week period who normally do not drink.
Blackout - amnesia for events occurring during the period of alcoholic intoxication, even though consciousness had been maintained at that time.
Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) - the number of grams of alcohol in the blood relative to 100 mililiters of blood, expressed as a percentage.
Blood alcohol level (BAL) - the level of alcohol in your blood.
Brewing - the process of producing beer from barley grain.
Brief intervention - Specifically, a treatment strategy in which structured therapy of short duration (typically 5-30 minutes) is offered with the aim of assisting an individual to cease or reduce the use of alcohol.
Codependency - a concept that individuals who live with a person having an alcohol (or other drug) dependence suffer themselves from difficulties of self-image and social independence.
Distillation - a process by which fermented liquid is boiled then cooled, so that the condensed product contains a higher alcoholic concentration than before.
Distilled spirits - the liquid product of distillation, also knows as liquor.
Dose-response relationship - Specifically, the relationship between alcohol consumption and a range of positive and negative consequences for the individual and society, including physical illnesses, accidents, violence and mortality.
Drinking pattern - The pattern of drinking, including frequency of drinking and quantity drunk per occasion and over time. The pattern represented by the average intake of alcohol per day or year.
DUI - abbreviation for driving under the influence (of drugs or alcohol); each state varies in their definition and percentage.
DWI - abbreviation for driving while intoxicated; each state varies in their definition and percentage.
Drunk driving - The act of driving a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol. The criminal action of driving a vehicle with a blood-alcohol level (BAL) over a specified limit.
Early intervention - A therapeutic strategy that combines early detection of hazardous or harmful alcohol use and treatment of those involved. Treatment is offered or provided before such time as patients might present of their own volition and in many cases before they are aware that their alcohol use might cause problems. It is directed particularly at individuals who have not developed physical dependence or major psychosocial complications.
Ethyl or Ethanol alcohol - the product of fermentation of natural sugars. It is generally referred to simply as alcohol.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) - a highly variable group of birth defects including mental retardation, deficient growth, and defects of the skull, face, and brain that tend to occur in the infants of women who consume large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy.
Fetal alcohol effect (FAE) - a cognitive deficiency in the offspring of an alcoholic mother. It is considered less serious than FAS.
Fermentation - the process of converting natural sugars into ethyl alcohol by the action of yeast. Natural stopping point is at 15%.
Fortification - the process of adding alcohol to increase content percentage.
Hangover - withdrawal symptoms from prior alcohol consumption (ex. headache, nausea, vomiting, stomach irritation..)
Harmful use - Specifically, a pattern of alcohol use that causes damage to health. The damage may be physical (e.g. liver cirrhosis following alcohol use) or psychological (e.g. depressive episodes secondary to heavy alcohol intake).
Hazardous use - Specifically, a pattern of alcohol use that increases the risk of harmful consequences for the user. Some would limit the consequences to physical and mental health (as in harmful use); some would also include social consequences. In contrast to harmful use, hazardous use refers to patterns of use that are of public health significance despite the absence of any current disorder in the individual user.
Intoxication - over indulgence in alcoholic beverages.
Legal drinking age - The age below which people are prohibited by law from purchasing alcohol.
Mutual-help group - Specifically, a group in which participants support each other in recovering or maintaining recovery from alcohol dependence or problems, or from the effects of another's dependence, without professional therapy or guidance.
Prohibition - Specifically, a policy under which the cultivation, manufacture, and/or sale (and sometimes use) of alcohol is forbidden (although pharmaceutical sales are usually permitted).
Reverse tolerance - one who needs less of the substance to feel the effects.
Werniche-Korsakoff Syndrome - a condition resulting from chronic alcohol consumption characterized by disorientation, cognitive deficits, amnesia, and motor difficulty.
Wine - made from a variety of ingredients which is then fermented where the alcohol level is 12-18% naturally unless fortified.