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August 15, 2013

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    SAMHSA Prescription Drug Abuse Weekly Update

    ISSUE 32  |  AUGUST 2013

The Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse in the Workplace (PAW) TA Center addresses prescription drug abuse--a growing public health problem with increasing burdens on workers, workplaces, and our economy. To subscribe colleagues, family members, or friends to this listserv sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), please click here or send their e-mail addresses to paw@dsgonline.com.

Featured Article

Five Ways to Curb Workplace Drug Risks
August 8, 2013

The Executive Director of the Workers Compensation Research Institute discusses the Institute's study, Longer-Term Use of Opioids (2012), as well as appropriate employer responses. The study analyzed almost 300,000 workers' compensation injury claims and 1,100,000 associated opioid prescriptions from 21 states. The injuries occurred between October 1, 2006, and September 30, 2009, with data on prescriptions collected filled up to March 31, 2011. Nearly 80 percent of claimants received at least one opioid prescription. The study defined longer-term use as patients receiving opioids for at least 3 months, while having three or more prescriptions for opioids. Long-term users included 16 percent of injury claimants in Louisiana and New York; around 10 percent in California, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina (and some other unnamed states); 4 percent in Wisconsin; and 3 percent in Arizona. One-fourth of longer-term users received opioid drug testing to help prevent misuse. Evidence-based treatment guidelines recommend random drug testing for this purpose, periodic psychological evaluations, and treatment to help manage the addictive effects of these powerful drugs. In most states studied, few injured workers received these evaluation and treatment services (only 4-7 percent of injured workers with longer-term use of opioids). The highest usage was one in four with psychological evaluations in Texas and one in six with psychological treatment in Wisconsin.

Experts Eileen Auen, the CEO of PMSI, a workers' compensation medical cost-containment company, and Tommy Young, co-CEO of Progressive Medical, a workers' compensation pharmacy benefits manager, concurred that employers have a key role to play in minimizing the risks and costs associated with inappropriate opioid use. They recommend employers: 1) review the clinical programs of their insurers, third-party administrators, and pharmacy benefits managers to assure opioid monitoring is part of the comprehensive clinical management program; 2) recognize they are not sidelined on this issue, particularly when equipped with the right tools--a well-coordinated effort by employers and their clinical teams can be invaluable to ensure that injured workers receive the right drug at the right time; 3) if the employer has a pharmacy benefits manager, ask for information about medication therapy management and the injured worker's adherence to the prescribed plan that can alert claims professionals to such potential therapy management issues as inappropriately filled medication, early narcotic use, and the need for urine testing for the presence of drugs--early medication management has been proven to improve claimant outcomes and reduce costs; 4) have a process for examining individual claims that involves a review of the injured worker's medication therapy regimen; and 5) play an active role in raising awareness and affecting public policy.

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Journal Articles

B. Nosyk, M.D. Anglin, S.Brissette, T. Kerr, D.C. Marsh, B.R. Schackman, E. Wood, and J.S.G. Montaner. 2013. "A Call for Evidence-Based Medical Treatment of Opioid Dependence in the United States and Canada." Health Affairs 32(8):1462-1469. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2012.0846.

Despite decades of experience treating heroin or prescription opioid dependence with methadone or buprenorphine, gaps remain between current practices and evidence-based standards in both Canada and the United States. This is largely because of regulatory constraints and pervasive suboptimal clinical practices. Fewer than 10 percent of all people dependent on opioids in the United States are receiving substitution treatment, although the proportion may increase with expanded health insurance coverage as a result of the Affordable Care Act. In light of the accumulated evidence, researchers recommend eliminating restrictions on office-based methadone prescribing in the United States; reducing financial barriers to treatment, such as varying levels of copayment in Canada and the United States; reducing reliance on less effective and potentially unsafe opioid detoxification; and evaluating and creating mechanisms to integrate emerging treatments. They believe that taking these steps can greatly reduce the harms of opioid dependence by maximizing individual and public health benefits of treatment.

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H. Uosukainen, J. Kauhanen, J.S. Bell, K. Ronkainen, J. Tiihonen, J. Föhr, I.N. Onyeka, and M.J. Korhonen. "Mortality among Clients Seeking Treatment for Buprenorphine Abuse in Finland." 2013. Drug Alcohol Dependence. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.06.022.

This study examined all-cause mortality rates and causes of death among clients seeking treatment for buprenorphine abuse versus other substance abuse. Researchers conducted structured clinical interviews with 4,685 clients between January 1998 and August 2008. Records of deaths that occurred among these clients were extracted from the Official Causes of Death Register in Finland. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) were computed using national mortality rates over a 13-year follow-up to examine excess mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare survival between buprenorphine and other clients. Sixty-one of 780 (7.8 percent) clients who sought treatment for buprenorphine abuse and 408 of 3,905 (10.4 percent) other clients died during the 13-year follow-up period. The most common cause of death was drug-related in buprenorphine (n=25, 41.0 percent) and other clients (n=142, 34.8 percent). Survival rates were similar among buprenorphine and other clients (log-rank χ[df=1]2=0.215, p=0.643). The SMR was 3.0 (95 percent CI 2.3-3.8) and 3.1 (95 percent CI 2.8-3.4) for buprenorphine and other clients, respectively. Excess mortality was highest among women aged 20-29 years, and more pronounced in buprenorphine clients (SMR 27.9 [95 percent CI 12.6-49.0]) compared to other clients (SMR 14.0 [95 percent CI 9.3-19.6]). Clients seeking treatment for buprenorphine abuse had a three times higher mortality rate than the national average, with the excess risk highest among female clients. Overall mortality rates were similar among clients seeking treatment for buprenorphine and other substance abuse.

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L. Wua, D.G. Blazera, M.S. Swartza, B. Burchetta, and K.T. Brady. 2013. "Illicit and Nonmedical Drug Use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals." Drug and Alcohol Dependence. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.06.008.

Researchers used data from the 2005-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The authors stratified their analysis by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use. Respondents' self-reported age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. Compared with Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs) had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled whites in odds of any drug use.

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News and Reports

Doctors and Nurses Should Be Drug-Tested--Get Used to It
MedScape Today News
August 1, 2013

Art Caplan from the New York University (NYU) Langone Medical Center, Division of Medical Ethics, offers his views on whether physicians and nurses should be subjected to routine drug screening. In this article and video (4:57 minutes), he discuss his support for pre-employment screening and random drug testing as job requirements for doctors, nurses, and in areas of the hospital such as anesthesiology. In addition, he thinks drug testing after an adverse event is important to determine whether drugs, alcohol, or some other type of abuse played a role in a medical mistake. Testing is one way to ensure patient safety.

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Gov. Bentley Signs 3 Bills Aimed to Lower Prescription Drug Abuse
August 5, 2013

Alabama Governor Robert Bentley signed three bills into laws that are aimed at reducing prescription drug abuse. House Bill (HB) 150 allows physicians to designate members of their staff to access the prescription drug monitoring database on their behalf. HB151 increases regulation of pain management clinics where drugs are prescribed for chronic pain. HB152 creates penalties for patients who doctor-shop to fill prescriptions.

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New Program to Help Moms Fight Substance Abuse
August 5, 2013

Knox County Judge and the Department of Children's Services announced Tennessee's first Family Recovery Court in an effort to reduce the number of mothers separated from their children. The program is in direct response to the state's prescription drug abuse epidemic and the rising number of babies born addicted to drugs. Health experts and the courts will help mothers quit abusing drugs and begin building a relationship with their children. The Family Recovery Court will open on September 1.

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New Sign of Stimulants' Toll on Young
The New York Times
August 8, 2013

The number of young adults who end up in the emergency room after taking Adderall, Ritalin or other such stimulants has quadrupled in recent years, according to a recent Drug Abuse Warning Network report by SAMHSA. Emergency room visits related to stimulants among people ages 18-34 increased from 5,600 in 2005 to 23,000 in 2011. The report focused on emergency room visits that were the result of abuse or misuse of the stimulants. About a third of all emergency room visits related to these stimulants involve alcohol among people ages 18- 34.

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Organization Aims to Keep Prescription Drugs Locked Up
Muskogee Phoenix
August 6, 2013

Neighbors Building Neighborhoods hopes to distribute 500 medicine lockboxes to Muskogee, Okla., residents over the next year. The lockboxes can be opened only by punching a code on the keypad. The Muskogee Housing Authority is installing 32 of the lockboxes in its homes throughout Muskogee. Neighbors Building Neighborhoods is working with businesses and organizations to distribute the lockboxes to other people who need them. It also plans to give them away at events such as the prescription take-back day planned for October.

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Use, Abuse of Suboxone Explodes in Western Pennsylvania
Tribune Review
August 4, 2013

Some experts worry about the widespread, unsupervised use of Suboxone (e.g., buprenorphine, naloxone). They think it is fueled by an increase in prescription drug abuse, a rise in heroin addiction, and a shortage of doctors trained to deal with addiction. Some addicts sell Suboxone on the street for as much as $20 per pill so they can buy heroin. According to a report by the Center for Substance Abuse Research at the University of Maryland, police seizures increased from 21 in 2003 to more than 8,000 by 2010, nationwide. Any doctor can be certified by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to prescribe Suboxone. It requires completion of an 8-hour course, either in person or online. Physician can then dispense the drug from their offices. More than 500 physicians are licensed to prescribe Suboxone in Pennsylvania. By state law, they are allowed to treat only 30 addicts the first year they are licensed and 100 in the second year. The medical director of Gateway Rehabilitation Center in Beaver County stated that physicians sometimes recruit other doctors to act as subcontractors in order to circumvent the patient cap. The CEO for Jade Wellness Center knows of physicians in other states, hired by local doctors, who use Skype to interview addicts in Pennsylvania, and then fax prescriptions to the patients for a $250 fee. She thinks doctors should review their patient's medical history and require regular urine tests to ensure patients have opiates in their systems and are not looking to obtain Suboxone to sell.

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Other State and Local News

Ex-Madam, Seeking New York City Office, Faces Prescription Drug Charges
August 6, 2013

A New York City Comptroller candidate was arrested for selling Adderall, Xanax, and other drugs. She was also accused of orchestrating the sale of approximately 180 oxycodone pills for cash. She is being charged with four counts of distributing and possessing with intent to distribute a controlled substance. If convicted, she faces a maximum sentence of 20 years in prison for each count.

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If Pennington Gap Is Dying, Drug Abuse May Be What's Killing It
The Kingsport Times-News
August 4, 2013

The Pennington Gap police chief was arrested for selling oxycodone to a police informant. He admitted that he had a longtime addiction and pled guilty to organizing a robbery of the Rite-Aid pharmacy where approximately 5,000 pain pills were stolen. A month later, another Pennington Gap police officer was arrested for selling prescription pain relievers. Pennington Gap is a small town in Virginia with a population of less than 1,800. Lee County, where Pennington Gap is located, was designated by the Office of National Drug Control Policy as a high-intensity drug trafficking area during the 2011 fiscal year. This designation gives local and regional law enforcement officers added tools and training to investigate illegal drug distribution.

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UCSD Rowing Coach Provided Prescription Drugs to Student-Athletes: NCAA
NBC7 San Diego
August 6, 2013

Two women's rowing coaches from the University of California, San Diego, are accused of providing prescription drugs to students and allowing ineligible student-athletes to participate in rowing, according to the NCAA Division II Committee on Infractions. They allegedly provided a prescription anti-inflammatory drug to six student-athletes more than 20 times between 2010-2012. The NCAA also claims that the coach told student-athletes not to talk about the drugs provided, and also directed students where to obtain the anti-inflammatory drugs on their own.

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EVMS Resident Took Drugs He Prescribed to Others
The Virginian-Pilot
August 7, 2013

The Virginia Board of Medicine put an Eastern Virginia Medical School (EVMS) resident on probation for taking hydrocodone and zolpidem that he had prescribed to others. He made the fraudulent prescriptions on 11 occasions between August 2011 and May 2012. He also possessed morphine and oxycodone that he claimed was donated to him for use in charitable medical work in Honduras. The medical resident was placed on leave in July 2012 for 16 weeks because of abuse of prescription opiates while on duty and for problems with absences, tardiness, non-completion of tasks, and non-availability on call. He said he was trying to self-medicate for his back pain which then became an addiction. He has since returned to his residency. The board of medicine put him on "indefinite" probation for at least 2 years providing he remains in the Virginia Health Practitioners' Monitoring Program, complies with a probation agreement with EVMS, and provides quarterly reports showing his recovery efforts.

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Medical Marijuana Changes Proposed
Albuquerque Journal News
August 6, 2013

The New Mexico Medical Board will consider new rules that would require doctor notification and prescription checks for certifying patients for the medical marijuana program. The executive director of the New Mexico Medical Board said the changes were prompted by cases of alleged wrongdoing by practitioners who have certified their patients. One proposed rule would require a doctor to inform the patient's other health care providers before signing the patient's certificate for the medical marijuana program. Another proposal would require clinicians to obtain a report from the New Mexico Board of Pharmacy showing any controlled drugs prescribed to the patient. Under New Mexico law, marijuana is a Schedule II controlled substance. State law requires physicians to obtain a report from the prescription monitoring program anytime they consider prescribing a controlled substance for a patient. The New Mexico Medical Board will take up the proposed rule changes at a hearing scheduled for August 16.

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Prescription Drug Dropbox Is a Welcome Sight in Millburn
The Alternative Press
August 6, 2013

Millburn Municipal Alliance Committee, the Millburn Police Department, and the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Team installed a prescription drug dropbox at New Jersey's Millburn Police Department to reduce prescription and over-the-counter medication abuse. Residents can access the box 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

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County Suicide, Prescription Drug Death Rates Up
Carmel Valley News
August 7, 2013

In 2011 and 2012, deaths due to suicide and prescription drug overdoses were at record highs in San Diego County, Calif., according to a recent report by the San Diego County Medical Examiner. In 2012, the county recorded 413 suicides. Prescription drug-related deaths continued to increase from 267 in 2011 to 269 in 2012. After cocaine, diazepam, methadone, oxycodone, hydrocodone, and diphenhydramine were among the top 10 drugs in overdose deaths.

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Catoosa Prevention Initiative Holds Prescription Drug Abuse Workshop
The Catoosa County News
August 3, 2013

On July 24, the Catoosa Prevention Initiative (CaPi) hosted a prescription drug abuse and misuse workshop for community members and government officials. A speaker from the Council on Alcohol and Drugs discussed the trends and dangers of prescription drug abuse as well as the community's role in prevention. CaPi, located in Georgia, helps 12-25 year olds avoid problems related to underage drinking and prescription drug abuse and misuse.

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Sheriff Sponsors Opiate Epidemic Presentations
Delaware County News Network
August 5, 2013

On August 14, the Delaware County Sheriff's Office and the SOAR CORP Recovery Center in Chester, Pa., will host a presentation, "Opiate Epidemic," which includes prescription drug abuse and heroin addiction among adolescents and others in the community. Parents, teachers, health care professionals, and community leaders will learn how to address this problem.

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Drop-Box Safe Way to Dispose of Prescription Drugs
The Express
August 8, 2013

The Bellefonte Police Department in Pennsylvania installed a prescription drug drop-off box in the lobby of its Borough Building. The box is available from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through Friday. An old post office box was given to the police department by the postmaster. Medications are sent to Penn State for incineration.

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Drug Drop Box Now Available at Cedar Rapids Police Department
The Gazette
August 2, 2013

Iowa's Cedar Rapids Police Department recently unveiled a prescription drug drop box at its station. Residents can dispose of their drugs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This includes Schedule II and illicit drugs.

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2012 Overdose Fatality Report
Commonwealth of Kentucky, Office of Drug Control Policy
Accessed August 7, 2013

This report was compiled using data from the Kentucky Medical Examiner's Office, the Kentucky Injury Prevention & Research Council, and the Kentucky Office of Vital Statistics. In 2012, there were 1,004 overdose fatalities. Of those, 888 were unintentional, 59 were suicides, and 57 remain undetermined. The Kentucky Medical Examiner's Office indicates that alprazolam (41.4 percent) remained the most detected controlled substance in overdose deaths of cases autopsied. Morphine was next at 32 percent, followed by hydrocodone (26 percent), oxycodone (24.2 percent), heroin (19.6 percent), and oxymorphone (17.5 percent). The youngest overdose fatality was 16 years old and the oldest was 72 years old; the average age was 40. Males consisted of 58 percent of the cases and females 42 percent.

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Pharmacy School Uses Drop Boxes in Study of Prescription Drug Abuse
The Kingsport Times-News
August 9, 2013

Staff and students from the Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy at East Tennessee State University examined and cataloged prescription medications that have been dropped off at the Kingsport Police Department, the Sullivan County Sheriff's Office, the Johnson City and Bristol Police Departments, and the Washington County Sheriff's Office. They are documenting what is placed in the boxes. The study aims to identify how better communication among health care providers, pharmacists who fill prescriptions, and patients taking medications can reduce illicit drug use. It also hopes to determine how successful the drop box programs are in removing potentially abused medications from households.

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Health Officials Respond to Growing Drug Problems
August 7, 2013

Health officers and addictions treatment directors representing Caroline, Dorchester, Kent, Queen Anne's, and Talbot counties developed the Mid-Shore Maryland Opiate Overdose Prevention Plan to respond to the growing threat presented by opioid narcotics. They met twice this year to define the approach and planning process. The plan includes efforts to reduce poisonings related to the ingestion of opioids alone or in combination with other substances. The group's goal is to reduce unintentional, life-threatening overdoses of both the illicit opioid drugs and pharmaceutical opioid analgesics.

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School Board Approves Drug Testing Policy
The Mount Airy News
August 7, 2013

The Mount Airy City (North Carolina) Schools Board of Education approved a random drug testing policy after hearing comments from three citizens in favor of it: a representative for the National Coalition Against Prescription Drug Abuse who lost two nephews to prescription drug overdoses; a local businessman; and the Mount Airy Police Department Captain. All had concerns about prescription drugs. Random drug testing would apply to all students participating in extracurricular activities in grades 6-12 or who drive to school. Parents may also enroll their children in the program. The first offense would require a student who tested positive to complete a school board-approved intervention program. After a second offense, a student would lose eligibility to participate in extracurricular activities for a year; and a third offense would mean the student would lose eligibility permanently.

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Experts Reach Out to Parents, Coaches to Warn Against Teen Athlete Rx Abuse
July 30, 2013

This article and video (1:53 minutes) discuss teens abusing prescription drugs after being injured playing high school sports. They are prescribed medications, develop a dependence on them, and then turn to the streets for heroin, according to an Ohio doctor. He is working on a new program that focuses on awareness and targets high school athletes, coaches, and parents. The program goes statewide this fall.

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Prescription Drug Abuse Extending into Student Population
The Powdersville Post
August 7, 2013

Prescription drug abuse starts at home and spills over into schools. This concerns the Easley High School Principal in South Carolina. The School District of Pickens County, the Prescription Drug Abuse Alliance, and the Step It Up Coalition of the Behavioral Health Services are hosting a rally at Pickens High School to call attention to the issue. Parents are not securing their prescription drugs at home. Young people are getting the drugs from medicine cabinets and they take them from family members who have passed away, according to the Pickens County Coroner who has investigated many prescription drug-related deaths involving young adults.

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Replacing Despair with Hope
The Roanoke Times
August 5, 2013

Five members of a drug trafficking ring admitted to shipping thousands of illegal pills into Southwest Virginia. The editorial opines that providers, law enforcement officials, community leaders, and grassroots advocates must remain committed to reducing prescription drug abuse in the Southwest Virginia region. Physicians must continue to use the prescription drug monitoring database, while the medical community continues to encourage its use. The community needs more drug courts, state support for detox centers and other treatment programs, better cooperation between Virginia and Tennessee, and economic opportunities. Also, candidates running for statewide office should talk about what they would do to replace drugs and despair with recovery and hope.

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NYPD Detectives Address Incoming College of Staten Island Freshmen about the Dangers of Prescription Drug Abuse
Staten Island Advance
August 8, 2013

New York Police Department's Organized Crime Control Bureau's Training Unit talked to 300 freshmen at the College of Staten Island (CSI) about the dangers of prescription drug abuse. They covered oxycodone, Vicodin, Ritalin, MDMA, synthetic marijuana, and other substances. The police department also explained the "Good Samaritan" law. They shared that efforts are under way to change the financial aid policy at City University of New York schools so that students charged with illegal possession of prescription drugs could lose their funding permanently. CSI administrators are planning to make the presentation mandatory for future freshman classes.

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Prescription Pill Problem Grows in Idaho
Today's 6 News
August 7, 2013

This article and video (2:13 minutes) discuss the Connect the Pieces Campaign, started by a Boise mother whose son died of a prescription drug overdose. He became dependent on drugs after he broke his wrist while playing soccer; he died at the age of 31. The campaign educates kids about the dangers of prescription medications and teaches parents how to become proactive.

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Back-to-School: Take a Stand Against Prescription Drug Abuse
Village News
August 7, 2013

The director of Chesterfield Health District, Virginia Department of Health, says the battle against prescription drug abuse starts at home. He encourages parents to lock up their medications and dispose of leftovers at drug take-back events. He would like parents to become role models by taking their medications as prescribed and not sharing them with others. Also, if they see themselves or a loved one taking more than prescribed, they should seek professional help. Finally, he stresses the importance of teens understanding the dangers of prescription drug abuse and that it can lead to addiction.

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Other Resources

7 Legal Drugs Abused by Teens
June 28, 2013

This slideshow displays seven legal drugs abused by teens, four of which are prescription drugs. Also, it mentions how to get help.

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Youth Drug Prevention Video Now Available on Xfinity on Demand in Washington, D.C. Area.
The Wall Street Journal
August 1, 2013

This press release announces the availability of a video from National Drug Facts Day by The Mentor Foundation USA, Comcast, and A&E Networks. Comcast Xfinity TV customers in the Washington, D.C., area can view the video at no additional cost on Xfinity On Demand. The annual event gives youth a voice to address the threats of drug and substance abuse.

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Grant Received

TPD Receives Grant to Fight Prescription Drug Abuse
August 2, 2013

The Thomasville Police Department (North Carolina) was awarded a $5,000 grant from the National Association of Drug Diversion Investigators for outstanding work in the investigation of pharmaceutical diversion. The funds will be used to increase the enforcement and education addressing the prescription drug abuse problem in Thomasville.

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Learn How to Educate Families on Medicine Abuse during Aug. 19 CADCA Webinar
August 19, 2013
4:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. (EST)

The Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA) will discuss how coalitions can participate in the CADCA 50 Challenge and National Medicine Abuse Awareness Month. Participants will also learn about receiving national recognition through CADCA's Dose of Prevention Award. Two coalition leaders who participated in the CADCA 50 Challenge and won awards will share their experiences.

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Insights from a National Epidemic: The Medicine Abuse Project - Free Resources for States and Communities
September 5, 2013

Save the Date

DEA's National Take-Back Initiative
October 26, 2013

Upcoming Conferences and Workshops

Pharmacy Diversion Awareness Conference
August 16 and 17: San Diego, California
August 18 and 19: San Jose, California
September 21 and 22: Boston, Massachusetts

National Conference on Addiction Disorders 2013
September 21-25, 2013
Anaheim, California

Harold Rogers Prescription Drug Monitoring Program National Meeting
September 25-27, 2013
Washington, District of Columbia

2013 National Safety Council Congress and Expo
Congress: September 28-October 4, 2013
Expo: September 30-October 2, 2013
Chicago, Illinois

4th Annual Executive Forum on Creating a Culture of Health and Wellness
October 7-8, 2013
Chicago, Illinois

2013 American Association for Treatment of Opioid Dependence Conference
November 9-13, 2013
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

11th Annual World Health Care Congress
April 7-9, 2014
National Harbor, Maryland
News and Research on Prescription Drug Abuse is a service provided by the SAMHSA Preventing Prescription Abuse in the Workplace Technical Assistance Center (PAW) to keep the field abreast of recent news and journal articles to assist in forming policy, research, and programs to reduce prescription drug misuse or abuse. Please note, the materials listed are not reflective of SAMHSA's or PAW's viewpoint or opinion and are not assessed for validity, reliability or quality. News and Research on Prescription Drug Abuse should not be considered an endorsement of the findings. Readers are cautioned not to act on the results of single studies, but rather to seek bodies of evidence. Copyright considerations prevent PAW from providing full-text of journal articles listed in News and Research on Prescription Drug Abuse.