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February 13, 2013

SAMHSA Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse in the Workplace Listserv

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February 13, 2013 (PDF version)
Featured Article
A.Y. Wally, Z. Xuan, H.H. Hackman, E. Quinn, M. Doe-Simkins, A. Sorensen-Alawad, S. Ruiz, and A. Ozonoff. 2013. "Opioid Overdose Rates and Implementation of Overdose Education and Nasal Naloxone Distribution in Massachusetts: Interrupted Time Series Analysis." BMJ 346:f174.
Researchers evaluated the impact of state-supported overdose education and nasal naloxone distribution (OEND) programs on rates of opioid-related death and acute care use in Massachusetts. They used a setting in 19 Massachusetts communities with at least five fatal opioid overdoses annually from 2004 through 2006. OEND programs equipped persons at risk for overdose and bystanders with nasal naloxone rescue kits and trained them how to prevent, recognize, and respond to an overdose by engaging emergency medical services, providing rescue breathing, and delivering naloxone. OEND programs trained 2,912 potential bystanders who reported 327 rescues. An interrupted time-series model showed that, relative to control communities, communities with fewer than 100 trainees experienced a 7 percent reduction in fatality rates. Communities with more than 100 trainees saw an 18 percent reduction in fatality rates.

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Related Article
Program to Spot Painkiller ODs Saves Lives: Study
HealthDay News
February 1, 2013
Teaching family and friends what to do when someone has taken too many pills could significantly reduce the number of overdose deaths. This article refers to a recent study in which participants in the OEND programs received instruction for recognizing overdose signs, seeking help, staying with victims, and using naloxone--a drug that reverses the effects of opioid overdose.
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Journal Articles
M. Cerda, Y. Ransome, K.M. Keyes, K.C. Koenen, M. Tracy, K.J. Tardiff, D. Vlahov, and S. Galea. 2013. "Prescription Opioid Mortality Trends in New York City, 1990-2006: Examining the Emergence of an Epidemic." Drug and Alcohol Dependence.
Researchers examined data from the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner to explore demographic and spatial pattern changes in prescription opioid-induced (i.e., analgesics and methadone) overdose fatalities from 1990 to 2006, and factors associated with death from prescription opioids versus heroin. The fatality rate increased nearly sixfold, from 0.39 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 2.7 in 2006. Whites and Latinos were the only racial/ethnic groups to exhibit an increase in overdose-related mortality. Relative to heroin overdose decedents, analgesic and methadone overdose decedents were likelier to be female and concurrently use psychotherapeutic drugs, but less likely to concurrently use alcohol or cocaine. Analgesic overdose decedents were less likely to be African American or Hispanic, while methadone overdose decedents were likelier to be black or Hispanic, relative to heroin overdose decedents.

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Related Press Release
Deaths From Prescription Opioids Like OxyContin Soar in New York City
Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health 
February 4, 2013
This press release reports that New York City prescription overdose deaths were concentrated in neighborhoods with high-income inequality but lower-than-average poverty rates.
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Related Article 
Prescription Drug Overdoses Soar in New York City, Across United States 
Psych Central
February 4, 2013
The rate of drug overdoses from prescription opioids increased nearly sixfold in New York City over a 16-year period, with a significant concentration among white residents. The increased rate was driven entirely by analgesic overdoses. Methadone overdoses remained stable and heroin overdoses declined.
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A.M. White, E. MacInnes, R.W. Hingson, and I.J. Pan. 2013. "Hospitalizations for Suicide-Related Drug Poisonings and Co-Occurring Alcohol Overdoses in Adolescents (Ages 12-17) and Young Adults (Ages 18-24) in the United States, 1999-2008: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample." Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior. doi:10.1111/sltb.12008.

Researchers culled data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to determine rates of inpatient hospital stays for suicide-related drug poisonings (SRDPs) and co-occurring alcohol overdoses in adolescents (ages 12-17) and young adults (ages 18-24) between 1999 and 2008. Among adolescents, there were 14,615 hospitalizations for drug poisonings in 2008--of which 72 percent (10,462) were suicide related. SRDP rates in this age group decreased between 1999 and 2008. The prevalence of co-occurring alcohol overdoses increased from 5 percent in 1999 to 7 percent in 2008. Among young adults, there were 32,471 hospitalizations for drug poisonings in 2008--of which 64 percent (20,746) were suicide related. SRDP rates did not change significantly between 1999 and 2008. The prevalence of co-occurring alcohol overdoses increased from 14 percent in 1999 to 20 percent in 2008.

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News and Reports

Health Canada, Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse Working on a Strategy to Address Prescription Drug Abuse 
Hill Times 
February 4, 2013

A Canadian Health Minister hopes to help those who need access to pain medication, mitigate the risk of diversion, and reduce potential abuse. To address abuse and diversion risks, she notes that the nation's Controlled Drugs and Substances Act prescribes various strict controls on activities with substances that may alter mental processes and harm health and society. New restrictions are in place on the licenses of anyone manufacturing or distributing products that contain the controlled-release formulation of oxycodone. Companies are now required to report sales of these products to Health Canada separated from the sales of other products. They are also required to report suspicious transactions and any unexplained losses and thefts. Health Canada closely monitors activities with narcotics, including regular inspections of licensed dealers. The author has offered to enhance information sharing among jurisdictions to help them monitor use of prescription drugs and take concrete measures to control abuse.

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ADHD Drugs: Students' Little Helper 
Downtown Birmingham/Bloomfield Publications 
February 6, 2013

This article discusses abuse of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder medication on high school and college campuses. In interviews with students who abuse Adderall, students say they use it to study, lose weight, and party longer, and they talk about how easy it is to get from friends or with their own prescription from a doctor. To counteract side effects, they use other drugs such as marijuana and sleep aids. Interviews were also conducted with school personnel, medical professionals, and experts. The article cites an annual teen substance use survey conducted by a local coalition. In 2011, 6.6 percent of students had used prescription stimulants without a prescription in the past year and 4.1 percent of students had used prescription stimulants without a prescription in the past 30 days. The survey also found that during the past 30 days, 4.2 percent of students acknowledged using prescription drugs to relieve stress; 3.9 percent used prescription drugs to improve academic performance; and 2.4 percent used the drugs to get high.

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Understanding Prescription Medicine Misuses 
United States Air Force, Joint Base Charleston 
January 31, 2013

To combat prescription drug misuse through education, this article notes the need to educate patients, parents, and children about how prescription drugs can be used. The author shares five tips on proper disposal of prescription medications and cites the Drug Enforcement Administration as a resource for further information.

Read more: 
ADHD Medication Adderall Kills Children and Adults; No Action by FDA (Video)
February 8, 2013

This article and video (3:41 minutes) center on young people who abuse Adderall on college campuses. The video talks to a student abusing the drug, while the article includes more accounts of people who overdosed on Adderall, side effects, and rehab centers. The author suggests that despite an increase in the abuse and dangers of using Adderall, the Food and Drug Administration is not taking actions to minimize risks.

Read more: 
Prescription Pill Abuse an Epidemic in Pennsylvania 
February 7, 2013

This article and video (3:45 minutes) discuss how prescription drug abuse is an epidemic in Pennsylvania, especially in Schuylkill County. A representative from the Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs said 4.2 percent of Pennsylvanians are abusing prescription drugs. Federal reports also indicate Pennsylvania is among a group of states with some of the highest rates of drug overdose deaths in the country. The author hopes the legislature will pass a new bill to increase prescription medication monitoring. Additionally, he would like to see better physician training for prescribing practices and spotting addiction. He thinks awareness is the key to reducing misuse.

Read more: 
Number of U.S. Emergency Department Visits Involving Buprenorphine Increases Nearly Tenfold from 2005 to 2010 
CESAR Fax, Center for Substance Abuse Research 
February 4, 2013

The estimated number of emergency department visits involving buprenorphine as a direct cause or contributing factor increased from 3,161 in 2005 to 30,135 in 2010, according to a recently released report from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. More than half of buprenorphine-related emergency department visits were for nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals.

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Canadian Students Abusing Adderall to Get Edge in Studying 
CTV News 
February 4, 2013

Canadian doctors are concerned that university and college students are abusing a prescription drug that contains amphetamines to stay awake and maintain their attention spans. Adderall has been popping up on campuses throughout North America. Canadian data are limited, but available studies suggest 11 percent of students have used or would consider using the drug.

Read more: 
Is an ADHD/Adderall Ice Age Ending? 
Huffington Post 
February 5, 2013

This blog post from a behavioral and developmental pediatrician discusses The New York Times front-page article "Drowned in a Stream of Prescriptions." He makes a metaphorical argument about the true thawing of a 20-year attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder/Adderall Ice Age and cites his 35 years of experience prescribing stimulants to children, teens, and adults.

Read more: 
Target 9 Investigates Prescription Drug Abuse Epidemic (Part 1 of 3) 
February 5, 2013

This article and video (2:29 minutes) discuss the new drug trends sweeping the nation in a special three-part series on prescription drug abuse. The reporter interviews a father who lost his son to a heroin overdose. It all started with an addiction to pain pills.

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Statewide Task Force on Prescription Drug Abuse and Newborns: February 2013 Final Report 
Florida Office of the Attorney General 
Accessed February 5, 2013

This report offers 15 specific recommendations on prevention, intervention, and treatment, including voluntary drug screening of pregnant patients at obstetrician/gynecologist offices. The report also encourages Florida to conduct a statewide public awareness campaign about the dangers of using prescription drugs during pregnancy. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome involves medical complications that newborns may experience after their mothers abused illicit or prescription drugs during pregnancy. In 2011, 1,563 newborn drug withdrawal cases were reported in Florida.

Read more: 
Drug Users Turn Death Dealers as Methadone From Bain Hits Street 
February 8, 2013

Liquid methadone, used for decades to help addicts abate withdrawal symptoms while quitting heroin or other opiates, is leaking into illegal street sales by way of take-home doses, according to law enforcement officials in Indiana, Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia. The problem has been linked to CRC Health Corporation. Former employees say the company's clinics are chronically understaffed, which makes it easier for take-home methadone to be abused. The clinics provide take-home packages with doses ranging from 1 to 30.

Read more: 
Related Article
Illegal Street Sales of Take-Home Doses of Methadone on the Rise
Partnership at Drugfree.org
February 8, 2013
This article discusses a Bloomberg report about rising illegal street sales of take-home liquid methadone doses. The article notes that diverted methadone has been linked to clinics operated by CRC Health Corporation, which is owned by the country's largest methadone treatment provider, Bain Capital Partners. Last year the company operated 57 clinics in 15 states.
Read more:
Will Missouri Adopt a Prescription Drug Monitoring Program? 
Kansas City Public Media 
February 4, 2013

This article and audio (1:25 minutes) discuss Missouri's efforts to establish a prescription drug monitoring program. Missouri is the only state in the country without such a program. The main opponent of establishing a program is now sponsoring legislation that would require popular approval. Legislation was also reintroduced to set up a prescription drug monitoring program in the state without requiring a popular vote.

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Opioid Testing Helps Curb Workers' Comp Claims 
Business Insurance 
February 5, 2013

Concerns about worker impairment related to prescription drugs continue to grow among employers. Experts say opioid testing is becoming more common, especially with employers aiming to increase job safety and reduce workers' compensation costs. The article notes a report released this month by Quest that said positive results for oxycodone increased 96 percent in employer screenings from 2005 to the first quarter of 2013, while positive tests increased 47 percent for hydrocodone. Employees were likelier to test positive for prescription opioids in random or postaccident drug tests than in preemployment screenings. In addition to testing, companies can work with their insurers to audit prescriptions for their employer groups and determine whether opioids are being prescribed too often. They can also have employees sign a narcotic contract--in which patients agree to careful opioid use under physician monitoring.

Read more: 
Special Report: Prescription Addiction 
February 7, 2013

This article discusses the prescription drug abuse problem in Kansas and how living near four state borders makes it easy for prescription drug abusers to get medications. The author interviews a veteran who became addicted to prescription drugs while getting them from doctors in several states.

Read more: 
Substance Abuse Tackled by Federal, State, and Local Officials in Conjunction With Rep. Rahall 
Huntington News Net 
February 5, 2013

U.S. Representative Nick Rahall (D-W.Va.) will convene a roundtable discussion on Feb. 21 at Marshall University's Forensic Science Center to highlight West Virginia's efforts addressing the public health and safety challenges of prescription drug abuse and trafficking. He will be joined by Gil Kerlikowske, Director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, and many others.

Read more: 
Drug Education Campaign Targets Real Estate Professionals 
January 29, 2013

This press release discusses a drug education campaign to reduce prescription drug thefts at Realtor open houses. North Inland Community Prevention Program, the Hope Foundation, and Oakwood Escrow in California kicked off the educational campaign by distributing 200 zippered plastic pouches at precaravan meetings. Recipients were asked to give the pouches to clients so they could easily take along prescription medications when leaving their homes during an open house.

Read more: 
UW-W Professor Studies Drug Deaths in Wisconsin 
Royal Purple News 
February 6, 2013

A study conducted by a University of Wisconsin-Whitewater professor identified 4,828 drug-related deaths in Wisconsin between 1999 and 2008. The top two death-related drugs were codeine and cocaine. Prescription medication has been steadily rising as the top cause of Wisconsin's drug-related deaths from 1999 to 2008. Methadone was the cause of 10 deaths in 1999 and 118 in 2008--a 1,080 percent change. The police chief wants to invest in facilities that help persons with addiction rather than investing in a drug-monitoring program.

Read more: 
State: Pain Med Abuse 'Epidemic' 
Journal Gazette 
February 3, 2013

Responding to a surge in overdoses, Indiana Senate Bill 246 would regulate pain clinics. It would also require the Indiana Medical Licensing Board to establish rules and standards for pain clinics, give the attorney general's office onsite inspection authority, and reinforce INSPECT--the state's prescription drug monitoring program.

Read more: 
Making the Pain of Prescription Drug Overdose Go Away 
Journal Star News 
February 7, 2013

This article reports on an interview with parents whose 26-year-old daughter died when she mixed alcohol with hydrocodone given to her by an acquaintance. It reminds readers how people are obtaining these drugs. The author cites a Centers for Disease Control report: every day, 100 people in the United States die from drug overdoses--most from prescription drugs. It reports that participation in Nebraska's prescription drug monitoring program is voluntary. A state senator has introduced LB535 to make participation mandatory.

Read more: 
Working Toward a Safer Workplace 
Gazette News 
February 1, 2013

The author discusses what he learned about prescription drug abuse during a Safety Council meeting with more than 200 safety personnel from a variety of local companies. A representative from the Lake County (Ohio) Narcotics agency was the guest speaker. The Lake County Safety Council is working toward safer workplaces by promoting caution and awareness in the workplace.

Read more: 
Rep. Carter Introduces Measure to Prevent Prescription Drug Abuse 
Newton Patch 
February 7, 2013

At a public hearing in Hartford, Conn., State Representative Dan Carter (R-2) advocated in favor of a bill to help prevent prescription drug abuse. House Bill 5484 requires a physician's written consent to use a generic substitution for any drug designed in a tamper-resistant formulation. If made law, the regulation would prevent pharmacists and insurance companies from replacing a prescribed name-brand drug with a generic version that could more easily be altered and ingested by drug addicts.

Read more: 
Relatives of Painkiller Overdose Patients Speak at FDA Hearing 
Partnership at Drugfree.org 
February 8, 2013

At a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) hearing, relatives of patients who overdosed on painkillers spoke in favor of changes on narcotic painkiller labels. The FDA said it wants to gather scientific evidence on issues including diagnosis and understanding of patient pain, understanding and adhering to labels on pain-treating products, limiting opioid prescriptions and use, and opioid abuse and misuse.

Read more:
Consumer Watchdog Calls for Political Response to Physician Drug Abuse Scandal, Including Mandatory Drug Testing for High-Risk Doctors Across California 
PR Newswire 
February 6, 2013

This news release discusses how Consumer Watchdog asked the California governor and legislative leaders to consider random drug testing of physicians. Leading consumer advocates want the legislature to hold hearings and investigate strong new laws in response to recent Los Angeles Times reports on widespread drug overdoses linked to physician overprescribing and the recent case of a doctor who was convicted of using methamphetamine and dealing drugs. The letter also urged officials to consider moving authority for oversight and prosecution of overprescribing to the pharmacy board, mine information in the state's prescription drug database to identify problematic prescribing patterns, and strengthen the doctor disciplinary system and preventive measures to protect patients before they are harmed.

Read more: 
Drug Users Went to Fentanyl When Oxy Delisted 
Metroland North Media 
February 2, 2013
This article warns parents to watch for signs of fentanyl use in Canada. Fentanyl is a prescription drug given to palliative care patients and those recovering from surgery. Users cut it into strips to smoke or chew it. The article urges parents to watch for burnt pieces of tinfoil and discarded plastic packets of fentanyl that may mimic alcohol swabs. Most abusers are getting strips from family and friends.

Read more: 
Could Prescription Drugs Be Causing Military Suicides? 
News Blaze 
February 2, 2013

Suicide rates among military personnel continue to climb. The Pentagon announced there were more suicides among soldiers in 2012 than combat deaths. Eighty-five percent had not even seen combat. Pills prescribed to troops have been linked to suicide, homicide, and bizarre behavior. The author reports that one in six service members was given a psychoactive drug in 2010 and now 89 percent of troops with posttraumatic stress disorder are given psychoactive drugs.

Read more: 
Southwest Virginia Battles Prescription Pain Pills 
WDBJ Television 
February 4, 2013

This article and video (4:55 minutes) discuss prescription drug abuse. The reporter interviews medical personnel to determine whether pain clinics/treatment facilities help or contribute to the problem. In 2011, 449 people in Virginia overdosed on OxyContin, hydrocodone, and methadone. The article and video note that one county, just 60 miles from the Virginia state line, had a doctor who provided 10,000 patients with pain medicine in 1 year. The current law in West Virginia allows doctors to prescribe large amounts of pain medications, with little legal accountability. Lawmakers are hoping to rewrite the law, holding physicians accountable for every prescription they write.

Read more: 
Commentary: Hazelden Responds to America's Opioid Epidemic 
Partnership at Drugfree.org 
February 8, 2013

Opioid addiction increased from 15 percent in 2001 to 41 percent in 2011 at Hazelden Youth Facility in Plymouth, Minn. The facility has introduced a new treatment protocol specifically for opioid-dependent patients, which builds on traditional care in two ways: by weaving specific features and challenges of opioid addiction into all aspects of treatment and by incorporating certain medications.

Read more: 
Proposal Would Exclude Vets From Prescription Tracking Law 
Wisconsin Ag Connection 
February 7, 2013

This article discusses how Wisconsin veterinarians would be exempt from participating in the prescription drug monitoring program under a proposed bill. Current law requires persons who dispense certain kinds of medicine to keep thorough records on all prescriptions. State representatives think excluding veterinarians will save small businesses from significant compliance costs.

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Other Resources

Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention Resources 
Arizona Pharmacy Association 
Accessed February 4, 2013

Volunteer pharmacy professionals are available to make presentations to different age groups on prescription drug abuse and misuse prevention.

Read more: 
School Nurses: Download Smart Moves, Smart Choices and Home to Homeroom 
Medicine Abuse Project 
Accessed February 5, 2013

Smart Moves, Smart Choices is a national awareness program designed to inform parents, students, and educators about teen prescription drug abuse and its serious risks. The program includes educational videos, quizzes, myth busters, and a school assembly kit to make teens think twice before they abuse prescription medication. Home to Homeroom partners parents with school nurses to help prevent teen prescription and over-the-counter cough medicine abuse through a School Nurse Toolkit. The kit includes a PowerPoint presentation, poster, and letter and action kit for parents.

Read more: 
NYPD Offers Prescription Drug Abuse Presentations at Schools 
United Federation of Teachers 
January 31, 2013

The New York City Police Department is conducting presentations at secondary schools and Parent Teacher Association meetings as part of its campaign, Prescription Drugs and Your Teenager. Prescription drugs are now the second-most commonly used controlled substance among students in the city, after marijuana.

Read more: 
Upcoming Conference
Prescription Drugs in the Workplace: An Employer's Guide for Screening and Prevention
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition 
May 18-23, 2013 
Palais des congrès de Montréal 
1001 Place Jean-Paul-Riopelle 
Montreal, Quebec

AIHce is designed to enhance knowledge of important topics and build strong relationships with other professionals. Various courses, sessions, posters, lectures, workshops, and luncheon discussions address professional development, scientific issues, management trends, industry innovations, and much more. The conference will include a workshop on Prescription Drugs in the Workplace: An Employer's Guide to Screening and Prevention.

Read more: 
Upcoming Webinar
Responding to the Nation's Prescription Abuse Crisis 
February 28, 2013 
2 p.m. (EST)
Duration: 90 minutes

Description: Please join SAMHSA and the Preventing Prescription Abuse in the Workplace (PAW) Technical Assistance (TA) Center for their second Prescription Abuse in the Workplace Webinar. The Webinar is aimed at SAMHSA grantees working at both the state and community levels. The presentation will provide information for prevention planners interested in developing and operating programs that respond to prescription drug abuse. It will concentrate on how the nation is responding to the prescription drug abuse crisis. The lead speaker will classify current and conceptually appropriate responses. Then he will examine how selected workplaces and communities are structuring their response. He will identify evidence-based individual prevention programs with prescription drug abuse content as well as a wide range of environmental prevention approaches. Other approaches discussed will include screening and brief/early intervention, treatment, and harm reduction through co-prescription of naloxone antidote to those with prescriptions for opioid painkillers. Finally, the Webinar will describe SAMHSA's PAW Technical Assistance Center and the resources it offers. Ted Miller, Ph.D., of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation will be the primary presenter. Dr. Miller directs SAMHSA's PAW TA Center. He has more than 10 years of experience studying prescription drug abuse. We hope you will be able to join us that Thursday.

For Participants
URL: https://www.mymeetings.com/nc/join 
Conference number: PW4848524 
Audience passcode: PRESCRIPTION
1. Conference number: PW4848524. 
2. The Net portion audience passcode is "Prescription."
3. Enter the required fields.
4. Indicate that you have read the Privacy Policy. 
5. Click on "Proceed."
6. To Access the Audio Portion: Dial the Toll-Free Number: 888.566.1821.
7. The Audio Participant Passcode is "Prescription."

Participants should access the Net portion 30 minutes before the scheduled start time to ensure they can log on. We will use Microsoft Live Meeting software. It should load onto your computer once you click on the link. However, if you have problems or need assistance, please contact the Product Help Desk at 800.857.8777, option 3. 
Please e-mail Rekaya Gibson at rgibson@pire.org with questions or comments about the SAMHSA Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse in the Workplace Listserv.  
About PAW and the Listserv
The PAW TA Center addresses prescription drug abuse--a growing public health problem with increasing burdens on workers, workplaces, and our economy. Prescription drug abuse affects workplace productivity and increases employee absenteeism, employee presenteeism, and workers' compensation claims. On a wider scale, overdose deaths linked to prescription opioids tripled from 1999 to 2006, and prescription drug abuse killed more Americans in 2009 than died that year in auto crashes.
Send your request for PAW technical assistance to PAW-TA@pire.org or contact Rekaya Gibson at 504.261.8107 or Deborah Galvin at 240.276.2721. Requests are subject to SAMHSA approval. You will be notified of the status of your request.
We aim to conduct systematic and inclusive searches of professional journals, leading newspapers and magazines, and federal websites, as well as contributions from listserv subscribers (please e-mail suggestions to rgibson@pire.org). We will send links to articles along with brief descriptions of those articles. As we develop the listserv, however, we hope to add commentary and invite feedback from subscribers. Our goal is to expand the listserv to become a widely used and recognized source of the most current and authoritative information on prescription drug abuse--especially in workplaces.

The "SAMHSA Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse in the Workplace Listserv" is a service provided by the SAMHSA Preventing Prescription Abuse in the Workplace Technical Assistance Center (PAW) to keep the field abreast of recent news and journal articles to assist in forming policy, research, and programs to reduce prescription drug misuse or abuse. Please note, the materials listed are not reflective of SAMHSA's or PAW's viewpoints or opinions and are not assessed for validity, reliability, or quality. The "SAMHSA Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse in the Workplace Listserv" should not be considered an endorsement of the findings. Readers are cautioned not to act on the results of single studies, but rather to seek bodies of evidence. Copyright considerations prevent PAW from providing full-text journal articles.
The Injury Control Research Center at West Virginia University (WVU-ICRC) archives past Listserv issues at http://www.hsc.wvu.edu/icrc/Pages/SAMHSA-Prevention-of-Prescription-Drug-Abuse-in-th. The partnership efforts of WVU-ICRC are supported by Grant Number 1 R49 CE002109 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The contents of the Listserv archive are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of CDC or SAMHSA.
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