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November 19, 2014


SAMHSA Prescription Drug Abuse Weekly Update
Issue 98  |  November 19, 2014
To better organize state and local news, we have categorized stories by region. If you have comments about this change or suggestions for improving the Weekly Update, please e-mail Rekaya Gibson at rgibson@pire.org. We also welcome e-mails with Webinar and meeting announcements and copies of reports the Weekly Update could cover.

The Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse in the Workplace (PAW) TA Center addresses prescription drug abuse—a growing public health problem with increasing burdens on workers, workplaces, and our economy. To subscribe colleagues, family members, or friends to this listserv sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), please click here or send their e-mail addresses to paw@dsgonline.com.
Table of Content Other Journal Articles and Reports Professional Education National News Northeast/Mid-Atlantic News South News Midwest News West News Webinars Take-Back Events and Drop Boxes Upcoming Conferences and Workshops


Webinar: Learn About Effective Programs for Preventing Prescription Drug Misuse Among Youth
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Preventing Prescription Abuse in the Workplace Technical Assistance Center
December 2, 2014
2 to 4 p.m. (EST)

In this Webinar, program implementers and evaluators will describe relevant content from five school- and community-based programs and present evidence on their effectiveness in preventing prescription drug misuse among youth. The programs featured are the Family Strengthening Program, alone or in combination with All Stars, Life Skills Training, or Project Alert, and the more targeted National Association of School Nurses' Smart Moves, Smart Choices program. Featured speakers include Eugenia Hamilton–Hartsook, Jane Todey, and Linda Trudeau from the Partnerships in Prevention Science Institute, and Mary Louise Embrey and Rebecca King from the National Association of School Nurses.

To register for the Webinar, send your name, e-mail address, and phone number to Lauren Thompson at lthompson@econometricainc.com.

Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
August 2014

This toolkit equips communities and local governments with material to develop policies and practices for preventing opioid-related overdoses and deaths. It includes overdose facts for community members, five essentials for first responders, overdose information for providers, safety advice for patients, and resources for overdose survivors and family members.

Read more:

Journal Articles and Reports

L. Degenhardt, B. Larance, R. Bruno, N. Lintzeris, R. Ali, and M. Farrell. 2014. "Evaluating the Potential Impact of a Reformulated Version of Oxycodone upon Tampering, Non-Adherence, and Diversion of Opioids: The National Opioid Medications Abuse Deterrence (NOMAD) Study Protocol." Addiction, doi:10.1111/add.12746.

This article summarizes methods used in the National Opioid Medication Abuse Deterrence study, which examined a) if extra-medical use (including via tampering) of OxyContin decreased following introduction of reformulated OxyContin; b) potential changes in extra-medical use of non-abuse–deterrent forms of oxycodone, other pharmaceutical opioids, and illicit drugs; c) if methods of tampering with reformulated OxyContin become widespread over time; d) reformulated OxyContin's attractiveness on the illicit market; and e) sales, prescriptions, and harms related to OxyContin and other drugs. The study's three major components are 1) analyses of routinely collected data, including pharmaceutical sales, prescribing data, data on drug overdose deaths, and survey data on drug use in the general population and among people who inject drugs; 2) data on OxyContin collected through the Illicit Drug Reporting System; and 3) recruitment of a prospective cohort of 606 people who regularly misuse or tamper with pharmaceutical opioids who were re-interviewed twice post-release of reformulated OxyContin.

Read more:

R.A. Deyo, J.M. Irvine, S.E. Hallvik, C. Hildebran, T. Beran, L.M. Millet, and M. Marino. 2014. "Leading a Horse to Water: Facilitating Registration and Use of a Prescription Drug Monitoring Program." Clinical Journal of Pain, doi:10.1097/AJP.0000000000000180.

Despite extensive registration efforts in Oregon, less than 25 percent of clinicians and pharmacists acquired prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) accounts in the first 2 years of operation. Rapid increases in registration and use resulted in 2013 when large pharmacy chains required pharmacists to register for and use the PDMP. In a survey of clinicians and pharmacists, nearly half said they were unaware they could register. Among users and nonusers, more than two thirds indicated time constraints were a major barrier, and more than half thought the inability to delegate access was a major barrier. Desired improvements include linking systems between states, faster entry of pharmacy data, and use of unique patient identifiers.

Read more:

L. Guo and C. Lu. 2014. "The Nonmedical Use of Alcohol and Prescription Drugs Among Adolescents in China." The European Journal of Public Health, doi:10.1093/eurpub/cku165.082.

In a survey of a 105,752-student sample in grades 7–12 from three large Chinese provinces, 14.2 percent reported nonmedical use of prescription drugs in their lifetime. Multivariate analysis showed students who lived in single-parent families, had poor relationships with teachers or classmates, felt lonely, and had depressive symptoms were more likely to nonmedically use prescription drugs. Use was lower among youth who had less than 300 yuan in pocket money per month.

Read more:

C.S. Hwang, H–Yen Chang, and G.C. Alexander. 2014. "Impact of Abuse-Deterrent Oxycontin on Prescription Opioid Utilization." Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, doi:10.1002/pds.3723.

IMS Health National Prescription Audit data showed OxyContin sales were similar in the years before and after the August 2010 abuse-deterrent reformulation, with approximately 550,000 monthly prescriptions. After adjusting for declines in the generic extended-release oxycodone market, the formulation change was associated with a reduction of approximately 18,000 OxyContin prescription sales per month. This decline corresponded with a change in the annual growth rate of OxyContin use from 4.9 percent before reformulation to −23.8 percent in the year after reformulation. Sales of alternative extended-release and immediate-release opioids were unaffected.

Read more:

K.H. Joe and J.S. Seo. 2014. "The Problems of Prescription Drug Abuse in Korea and Taking Actions to Overcome." Abstract: 16th International Society of Addiction Medicine Annual Meeting. Alcohol and Alcoholism, doi:10.1093/alcalc/agu052.3.

This conference abstract, written in fractured English, describes Korea's benzodiazepine overuse problem. Annually, 8.4 to 18.6 percent of Koreans fill a benzodiazepine prescription—most often for diazepam.

Read more:

S.E. McCabe, B.T. West, T.S. Schepis, and C.J. Teter. 2014. "Simultaneous Co-Ingestion of Prescription Stimulants, Alcohol and Other Drugs: A Multi-Cohort National Study of US Adolescents." Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, doi:10.1002/hup.2449.

In nationally weighted data from 12,431 high school seniors responding to the 2002–06 Monitoring the Future surveys, 7.3 percent reported past-year nonmedical use of prescription stimulants, and 11.2 percent reported lifetime use. Among past-year users, 64 percent simultaneously ingested other substances—most commonly marijuana (79 percent of multiple ingesters) and/or alcohol (75 percent of multiple ingesters). Nonmedical users who co-ingested prescription stimulants with other substances were more likely than other misusers to report non-oral routes of administration, recreational motives, and a greater subjective high.

Read more:

B. Ray, D. O'Donnell, and K. Kahre. 2014. "Police Officer Attitudes Towards Intranasal Naloxone Training." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.10.026.

In a survey of 117 Indianapolis police officers who completed training to recognize opioid overdose and administer intranasal naloxone, officers reported overwhelmingly positive feedback, saying the course was not difficult and that other officers should be similarly trained. By Opioid Overdose Attitudes Scale measures, officers knew the appropriate actions to take in the event of an overdose, and felt administering intranasal naloxone would not be difficult.

Read more:

M.M. Silvestri, H. Knight, J. Britt, and C.J. Correia. 2014. "Beyond Risky Alcohol Use: Screening Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs at National Alcohol Screening Day." Addictive Behaviors, doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.10.027.

Among a sample of 128 Auburn University undergraduates surveyed at a National Alcohol Screening Day event, 42 percent reported nonmedical use of prescription drugs at least once in their lifetime, including 30 percent who indicated at least one use in the past year, and 18 percent who simultaneously engaged in alcohol consumption and nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Pain relievers were the most frequently used drug class for lifetime use, and stimulants were the most frequently reported for past-year use. Students who engaged in binge drinking were three times more likely to report nonmedical use of prescription drugs. This study suggests events like National Alcohol Screening Day may provide a platform for screening and discussing nonmedical use of prescription drugs and the risk of mixing these drugs with alcohol.

Read more:

J. Suzuki, J. DeVido, I. Kalra, L. Mittal, S. Shah, J. Zinser, and R.D. Weiss. 2014. "Initiating Buprenorphine Treatment for Hospitalized Patients with Opioid Dependence: A Case Series." The American Journal on Addictions, doi:10.1002/AJAD.12161.x.

Among 47 patients receiving buprenorphine during detox hospitalization, 22 successfully initiated buprenorphine treatment within 2 months of discharge. Patients who obtained a referral to a specific program were more successful in continuing treatment (59 percent vs. 39 percent), but the difference did not reach statistical significance in this small sample.

Read more:

S.E. Wixson, K. Blumenschein, A. Goodin, G.E. Higgins, G.F. Vito, J. Talbert, and P.R. Freeman. 2014. "Law Enforcement Perceptions of a Prescription Drug Monitoring Programme." International Journal of Police Science and Management 16(4): 288–96.

A mail survey of Kentucky law enforcement officials regarding the Kentucky prescription drug monitoring program (KASPER) had a 30 percent response rate. Most respondents (65 percent) had used a KASPER report in the month before survey participation, with a median of three reports used. Overall, law enforcement officials perceive KASPER as an effective tool for reducing doctor shopping and drug abuse and diversion.

Read more:

Professional Education

A. de Havenon and S. Ansari. 2014. "Combating Performance Enhancing Drug Abuse: Detection and Punishment Are Not Enough." Performance Enhancement and Health, doi:10.1016/j.peh.2014.10.003.

Abuse of performance-enhancing drugs by professional and amateur athletes is a major public health concern, with serious medical and psychiatric repercussions. This issue is poorly understood, under-recognized, and as a result, undertreated.

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National News

New Survey: Misuse and Abuse of Prescription Stimulants Becoming Normalized Behavior Among College Students, Young Adults
Jose Feliz, Partnership for Drug-Free Kids
November 13, 2014

The Partnership for Drug-Free Kids commissioned a nationally representative 2014 online survey of 1,621 people ages 18 to 25. Of the respondents, 1,018 were current college students (full or part time); 603 were not. (A supplemental oversample added more prescription stimulant misusers.) Nationwide, an estimated 17 percent of young adults have misused a prescription stimulant at least once, typically as a way to manage the daily demands of academics, work, and social pressures. One in five college students reported misusing prescription stimulants at least once in their lifetime, compared with one in seven among non-students. College freshmen reported less misuse than other students. Of users, half reported using stimulants to study or improve academic performance, 41 percent to stay awake, and 24 percent to improve performance at work. Twenty-seven percent of student misusers also held full-time jobs. Young adults viewed prescription stimulants as less risky than prescription pain relievers, cigarettes, or binge drinking. Among those legally prescribed stimulants, 28 percent reported exaggerating symptoms to obtain a higher dosage. Twenty-eight percent of those with prescriptions also shared their medicine with friends, and 52 percent reported being pressured by friends into sharing or selling their prescribed stimulants.

Read more:

Prescription Narcotics Are Potent Painkillers, but They Can Be Deadly
Consumer Reports, The Washington Post
November 10, 2014

This article discusses misconceptions that opioids work well for chronic pain, that they are not addictive when used to treat pain, and that extended-release versions are safer. Along with facts on opioids, the article includes several "safer approaches."

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Northeast/Mid-Atlantic News

Mass Regulations Seek to Curb Prescription Drug Abuse
State House News Service
November 13, 2014

The Public Health Council adopted regulations aimed at decreasing opioid abuse and stemming doctor shopping. These regulations require checking the Massachusetts prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) when issuing a first prescription for select opioids. They create a process for revoking and suspending a user's PDMP access and allowing prescribers to delegate PDMP tasks to their staff. The regulations also seek to ease access to naloxone. A nine-member advisory group will recommend prompts for requiring a prescriber to use the program when dealing with specific Schedule II or III prescription drugs.

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Norfolk County Campaigns Target Drunken Driving, Prescription-Drug Abuse
Natalie Ornell, The Patriot Ledger
November 10, 2014

The Norfolk County, Mass., district attorney kicked off a campaign geared toward combating prescription drug abuse. Organizers will invite 120 Norfolk County pharmacies to enroll in the Massachusetts prescription drug monitoring program. The pharmacies will be asked to distribute information cards on safe drug storage and will receive fact sheets describing warning signs of prescription fraud and abuse.

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Docs Who Deal: Big Money Schemes, Small Punishment
Mary Beth Pfeiffer, Poughkeepsie Journal
Assessed November 10, 2014

Four of 26 doctors arrested for selling prescription drugs since 2009 were sentenced to more than 4 years, according to the Poughkeepsie Journal. More than one third received no jail time. The journal excluded another 15 cases that involved misdemeanor crimes, low-level possession charges, personal drug use, and in one case, sale of cancer drugs. State law defines selling a prescription as a Class C felony crime punishable by 1 to 5 1/2 years, whereas B-level felony drug sales start at 1 to 9 years. Twelve doctors in 16 federal cases examined by the journal received lower sentences, including four who received no time. Prison terms are mitigated by doctors' community standing, age, health, level of cooperation, and whether they plead guilty, as 24 of 26 did. All but one lost his or her license to practice medicine. In nine cases, that did not involve jail or prison time; eight doctors were fined an average of $70,000.

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For Veterans in Legal Trouble, Special Courts Can Help
Ines Novacic, CBS News
November 10, 2014

Patrick Dugan, a judge at the Philadelphia Municipal Court and captain in the U.S. Army Reserve JAG Corps, presides over Philadelphia's Veterans Treatment Court. The federal government sits in the courtroom to offer services. Veteran courts only admit those with a clinical diagnosis of a substance abuse or mental health disorder. The veteran enrolls in a program similar to 12 Steps that varies in length and design according to the severity of the medical case and crime. Upon completion, charges are dropped and records expunged. Former Marine Pearson Crosby ended up in Judge Dugan's court after being arrested and charged with driving under the influence of prescription medication. He became addicted to the drugs 6 months after returning home from Iraq. By last summer, he was taking at least eight types of pills a day. (Includes video: 3:25 minutes)

Read more:

Police Would Have to Report Use of Naloxone, Heroin Antidote, Under Proposed Law
Anna Sanders, Staten Island Advance
November 13, 2014

The New York City Council is considering requiring the police department to submit quarterly reports on the number of times it administered naloxone and the number of overdose victims who died.

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Nootropics: Can These Smart Drugs Super-Charge Your Career?
Kayleen Schaefer, MSN
November 10, 2014

Jonathan Reilly, a biomedical engineer, believes nootropics can give him a mental edge at work. Nootropics is a category of substances that includes prescription analeptics like Nuvigil and Provigil, and supplements such as New Mood and Alpha Brain that are made of vitamins, amino acids, and antioxidants. Users say nootropics increase their memory, intelligence, motivation, and concentration without the jitters or crashes. Many users have found their physicians will prescribe Provigil or Nuvigil if they complain of frequent jet lag or excessive fatigue, while others get them online (even though it is illegal). Psychiatrist Emily Deans cautions that these so-called "smart drugs" may affect temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.

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Adderall Use at Cornell: A Way of Life for Some
Aimee Cho, The Cornell Daily Sun
November 9, 2014

Some students at Cornell University use Adderall from friends with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In a fall 2013 Alcohol and Social Life Survey, 6.7 percent of students reported having used a prescription stimulant without a prescription to "enhance academic performance," with 4.6 percent doing so in the 2012–13 academic year. Laura Santacrose, health initiatives coordinator for Gannett Health Services, said overall use of unprescribed Adderall on campus is "very low." Students are not worried about risks or consequences of using the drug without a prescription. Some say they aren't concerned about getting caught because there is no way for administrators or police to know if they have taken unprescribed Adderall.

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South News

Lab Service Company Combats Drug Abuse
Dan Yesenosky, WCNC
November 13, 2014

South Carolina's Physicians Choice Laboratory Services (PCLS) uses its labs and databases to help doctors track patients and catch those who use their medication inappropriately. If an individual is in the PCLS program, the lab can check for previous irregular urine or saliva tests. The most common red flag is other drugs in a person's system (along with the prescription pain medicine). PCLS is also working with doctors to monitor pregnant mothers and prevent babies from being born addicted to prescription drugs.

Read more:

Midwest News

Updated Legislation Seeks to Track Prescription Drug Abuse in Missouri
Shavon Anderson, WGEM
November 10, 2014

A Missouri bill to establish a prescription drug monitoring program has passed the House and is waiting to be heard in the Senate. The Senate bill has different language that more fully addresses privacy concerns. Supporters hope the bill will pass early next year. (Includes video: 1:13 minutes)

Read more:

Clark, Champaign Counties Awarded $750K for Opiate Treatment
Brian Bondus, Springfield News-Sun
November 11, 2014

Ohio's Clark and Champaign Counties were awarded more than $750,000 in state and federal money to address opiate and other drug addictions. The Rocking Horse Center in Springfield was awarded $250,000 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to add staff members and services treating patients with drug addictions. In Logan and Champaign Counties, the Mental Health, Drug and Alcohol Services Board will receive more than $500,000 in state money to create new recovery homes, focusing on people fighting opiate addictions.

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Heroin, Prescription Drug Abuse Are Top Iowa Concerns
Rod Boshart, Waterloo Cedar Falls Courier
November 13, 2014

Iowa officials are concerned about rising cases of heroin and prescription drug misuse and associated deaths. Heroin overdoses rose to 20 in 2013, while 77 deaths were linked to prescription opioid overdoses.

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A Parent's Heroin Addiction, a Newborn's Death Sentence
Crocker Stephenson, Milwaukee-Wisconsin Journal Sentinel
November 14, 2014

This article discusses opioid addiction among two pregnant women and its effect on their children. Jackie Bricco gave birth to a baby with neonatal abstinence syndrome. The premature infant was weaned from methadone using morphine, clonidine, and phenobarbital, and released into Bricco's custody. At 3 months, the baby died from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Type II. This death resulted in Bricco's 28th referral to Child Protective Services (CPS). CPS received another referral alleging neglect of one of Bricco's daughters. Bricco, pregnant again, was using heroin. An Unborn Child in Need of Protective Service petition was filed requesting Bricco be taken into emergency custody. The court ordered her to Meta House, an inpatient treatment facility for women. In another case, Nicole Beltrame became addicted to Percocet after a car crash. She thought she could kick the habit before giving birth. But when doctors found opiates in Beltrame and her premature baby, the child was removed from her mother's custody and placed in foster care. Now Beltrame is off the drug and pregnant again. She recently reunited with her 18-month-old daughter.

Read more:

West News

Changes Make Colorado's Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Easier and More Useful—and Will Help
Colorado Medical Society
November 12, 2014

A new law and enhancements to Colorado's prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) will increase its functionality and usefulness. House Bill 1283 requires PDMP account registration by licensed pharmacists and prescribers registered with the Drug Enforcement Administration for prescribing controlled substances. Pharmacies must upload dispensing data daily, and prescribers and pharmacies will receive "push notices" when a patient tries to fill a prescription for a controlled substance from multiple sources and in large quantities. Beginning January 2015, prescribers and pharmacists will be able to assign sub-accounts to up to three members of their healthcare teams. The PDMP enhancements allow prescribers to view available reports in one spot and retrieve patient information quickly.

Read more:

New Report Shows Drop in Prescription Drug Abuse
Dwane Brown, KPBS
November 7, 2014

In San Diego County, Calif., a Prescription Abuse Report Card showed deaths related to prescription drugs dropped slightly in 2013—from 268 to 259. The county also saw decreases in adults seeking treatment for pain reliever addiction, juvenile arrestees who reported abusing prescription drugs, pharmacy burglaries and robberies, prosecutions of prescription drug fraud, and 11th graders reporting abuse of legal medications. Conversely, the county had more emergency room visits due to pain relievers, more adult arrestees misusing prescription drugs, and increased heroin deaths.

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New Deaconess Unit Aids Drug-Dependent Newborns
Jody Lawrence, The Spokesman-Review
November 10, 2014

Deaconess Hospital opened Washington's first neonatal abstinence unit on October 1. The hospital treats close to 100 drug-dependent newborns each year (or 29 percent of newborns brought to its neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]). Babies born exposed to drugs are evaluated at birth. Only about 30 percent have been exposed to illicit drugs; the majority have been exposed to prescription pain relievers. Babies are given small doses of morphine or methadone to ease withdrawal. Nine nurses and three occupational therapists are trained in infant massage to keep babies calm. Washington has not established a medical protocol for treating drug-dependent newborns. Maureen Shogan, a clinical nurse specialist in the NICU, sits on a statewide committee working toward a uniform approach.

Read more:

Some Electronic Drug Prescriptions Slow to Catch On
Carol McAlice Currie, Statesman Journal
November 11, 2014

Oregon lawmakers approved House Bill 4013 in March, allowing healthcare providers and pharmacies to send and receive electronic prescriptions for Schedule II controlled substances. Some Portland pharmacies have begun using the secure system, but an anecdotal review of pharmacies in the Mid-Valley shows a slower process. Rite Aid spokeswoman Kristin Kellum said Oregon's Rite Aid pharmacies are equipped to offer the electronic transmission, but a pharmacy technician at the Keizer Rite Aid store reported being unfamiliar with the practice. Vic Curtis, senior vice president at Costco Wholesale, said the company will introduce a pilot program in two locations in the next 30 days, and then add two more. According to Curtis, there is no projected date when the new prescription delivery system will roll out in Oregon.

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Drug Helps Reverse Overdoses (at Home)
Whitney Wild, 9News
November 9, 2014

Dr. Patrick Fehling, an addiction specialist at the Center for Dependency, Addiction and Rehabilitation, is launching a program to put naloxone into the hands of users in treatment. Naloxone will also be available to family members. Dr. Fehling said most drug overdose deaths are accidental, and even people who do not abuse pain relievers can take too much by mistake. (Includes video: 2:31 minutes)

Read more:


Webinar: Learn About Effective Programs for Preventing Prescription Drug Misuse Among Youth
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Preventing Prescription Abuse in the Workplace Technical Assistance Center
December 2, 2014
2 to 4 p.m. (EST)

To register for the Webinar, send your name, e-mail address, and phone number to Lauren Thompson at lthompson@econometricainc.com.

Prescription Drug Abuse
Center for the Application of Substance Abuse Technologies, University of Nevada–Reno
December 9, 2014

Take-Back Events and Drop Boxes

More Than 12 Tons of Unwanted Rx Drugs Discarded via Ohio Drop Box Program
Ohio Attorney General's Office
November 13, 2014

Prescription Drug Drop Box Available for Public Use
Herald-Citizen (Tennessee)
November 12, 2014

Prescription Drug Drop-Off Box Set Up in Borough of Boyertown
Hilda Hynes, 21st Century Media (Pennsylvania)
November 14, 2014

Unused Medications Can Now Be Disposed of at Some King Kullen Pharmacies
Ted Phillips, Newsday (New York)
November 13, 2014

Wharton Police Department Debuts Prescription Drug Drop Box
Victoria Advocate (Texas)
November 12, 2014

Dover Police Department Unveils Medication Dropoff Box
Andrew Sgroi, WDEL (Delaware)
November 12, 2014

Upcoming Conferences and Workshops

Opiate Symposium
Mental Health and Recovery Services Board of Stark County
December 15, 2014
8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.
First Christian Church, Heritage Hall
6900 Market Avenue North
Canton, Ohio

This symposium will discuss how prescription drug abuse and heroin are affecting Stark County, Ohio; the state; and country as a whole. Participants will learn about the "brain science" behind opiate addiction, as well as strategies to address drug abuse such as Project DAWN and medication-assisted treatment.

Read more:

SAMHSA's 11th Prevention Day
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
February 2, 2015
National Harbor, Maryland

25th Anniversary National Leadership Forum
Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America
February 2–5, 2015
National Harbor, Maryland

National Rx Drug Abuse Summit
April 6–9, 2015
Atlanta, Georgia
The Weekly Update is a service provided by the SAMHSA Preventing Prescription Abuse in the Workplace Technical Assistance Center (PAW) to keep the field abreast of recent news and journal articles to assist in forming policy, research, and programs to reduce prescription drug misuse or abuse. Please note, the materials listed are not reflective of SAMHSA's or PAW's viewpoint or opinion and are not assessed for validity, reliability or quality. The Weekly Update should not be considered an endorsement of the findings. Readers are cautioned not to act on the results of single studies, but rather to seek bodies of evidence. Copyright considerations prevent PAW from providing full text of journal articles listed in the Weekly Update.